North West Geography
Volume 7, Number 1, 2007
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A two-phase development sequence of rock-slope failure on Kirkby Fell, Malham, is proposed based on field observations and Schmidt hammer data. The first phase was a rotational movement and the second was a rock slump-earthflow failure. An interval of unknown length separated these phases. Glacial/deglacial slope conditioning and seismic activity are considered to have been important triggering factors for the first phase of failure and seismic activity may have also played a role in the second phase. Rock-slope failures have been a neglected aspect of landscape studies in the Craven district and, as a consequence, their extent, variety, age and significance are largely unknown. Greater awareness and knowledge of these features is required in order to evaluate their contribution to landscape evolution.
An investigation of earthworms at the Sefton Coast sand dune system examined species distribution and abundance with respect to soil conditions and management across areas of vegetation succession. Laboratory work examined growth, maturation and survival of one species in soils with increasing proportions of sand (0-100%). Nine earthworm species were found on the dunes, but not where soil organic matter content was <1%. Dendrobaena octaedra and Lumbricus rubellus, found 300m from the strand line, were considered pioneering species. In areas of human disturbance a greater number of species was present. Earthworm distribution was influenced by dune successional stage and management.