North West Geography
Volume 6, Number 1, 2006
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The contrasting fortunes of the housing market in different areas of the country are a major political issue. Plans to build large numbers of new houses on greenfield sites in southeast England have caused outrage and consternation in some quarters, while intentions to demolish properties in areas of housing market failure have provoked similar reactions. This article investigates the operation of the housing market in East Lancashire, looking at differences at regional and local levels, uncovering a much more complex situation than simplistic headlines might suggest.
This paper presents data on spatial variability in urban road-deposited sediment (RDS) composition (HCl-digestable Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn, H2O-leachable sulphate, nitrate and chloride) across the centre of the Greater Manchester conurbation. Given the importance of RDS to surface water quality within the urban environment, an understanding of the spatial variability in RDS composition is an important component of managing RDS and associated pollution.
Road-deposited sediment (RDS) was sampled on a five-day period in June 2003 over a 5km by 5km area of Manchester and Salford City centres, at a sampling density of 0.25km2 (100 samples in total). The highest levels of accumulated sediment were recorded away from the city centres, probably as a result of regular removal of RDS by street sweeping in the city centres. HCl-extractable Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb, and H2O-leachable chloride, sulphate and ammonium, all displayed high levels of variability across the sampled area. In general, Pb and Zn displayed high levels in the centres of Manchester and Salford, probably reflecting increased traffic density, with lower values outside these areas. Iron and Mn were highest away from the city centre, possibly suggesting derivation from soils and other geogenic sources that are rare in the city centres. Cu distribution was distinctive from both Pb and Zn, and Fe and Mn. Whilst Cu has previously been sourced to vehicle activity, the data for Manchester RDS suggest additional, unidentified, sources. H2O-leachable chloride, sulphate and ammonium all showed similar distribution patterns, with high values in the centres of Manchester and Salford, and low values outside the centres. Sulphate and ammonium probably derive from wet and dry deposition, ultimately derived from vehicular and industrial processes. Chloride is presumed to be derived from road-salting. The presence of high levels of these soluble components indicates that RDS should be expected to have an impact upon surface water quality, and their chemical characteristics should be considered in surface water quality management. The recognition of spatial variability in the RDS in this city suggests that such data should be routinely collected to aid in the effective implementation of urban pollution management strategies based upon contaminant source control.