North West Geography
Volume 3, Number 1, 2003
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The onset of war resulted in massive state intervention in agriculture to secure adequate food supplies. Draconian powers were used to control agricultural production. This article looks at the effects of these policies in South-West Lancashire by analysing the extensive archives related to the National Farm Survey and the work of the Lancashire War Agricultural Committee.
Deterioration of excavated rockslopes occurs in engineering time. It can create a serious safety hazard and has significant resource implications. This paper presents results from a field investigation of more than 100 deteriorating rockslopes in the North West of England. Deterioration is found to be widespread but its nature and consequences vary considerably, notably in relation to rock mass structure and material properties. Deterioration can be characterised on the basis of morphology, mechanisms and relationship to the mass structure and these are used to form the basis of a new rock mass classification.
During the early Devensian, ice formed only in Cumbria. By 22,000 BP the northwest of England was covered by ice emanating from Scotland and the Lake District. The ice sheet was warm-based, with subglacial water movement within tunnel valleys. As the climate warmed the ice receded northwards, leaving moraines and stagnant ice features. During the later stages of recession, subglacial water began to move through the thick till bed, and deformation of this sediment into drumlins occurred. This process was aided by the marine inundation of the Irish Sea basin, forming a tidewater glacier margin, and causing rapid drawdown and calving of icebergs. After the main ice sheet had disintegrated, a cold snap led to the reformation of ice in the Pennines and Lake District.